Voir Lettre 4074 in Thesaurus Epistolicus (t.11), in Jean, Calvin, Ionnis Calvini Opera quae supersunt omnia, G. Baum, E. Cunitz et E. Reuss, Brunswick-Berlin (éds), 1863-1900, 58 vols., XX, p. 246.
Voir Lettres 3139, 3150 in Thesaurus Epistolicus (t.8), in op. cit., XVII.
John Knox, History of the Reformation in Scotland, W.C. Dickinson (éd.), London, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1949, 2 vols., II, p. 129.
« subjects were not bound to obey their princes if they commanded unlawful things » (Knox, ibid., II, p. 116-7).
« and what harm […] should the commonwealth receive, if that the corrupt affections of ignorant rulers were moderated, and so bridled by the wisdom and discretion of godly subjects? » (Knox, ibid., II, p. 120).
Pierre Janton, « La messe chez les réformateurs britanniques au XVIe siècle », in La controverse religieuse, Actes du 1er Colloque Jean Boisset, Montpellier, Presses de l’Imprimerie de Recherche, Université Paul Valéry, Montpellier, 1980, t. 2, p. 87-95.
« If their princes exceed their bounds […] and do against that wherefore they should be obeyed, it is no doubt but that may be resisted, even by power » (Knox, op. cit., II, p. 16-17).
« for I speak of the people assembled together in one body of a Commonwealth, unto whom God has given sufficient force, not only to resist, but also to suppress all kind of open idolatry; and such a people, yet again I affirm, are bound to keep their land clean and unpolluted » (Knox, ibid., II, p. 121-22).
« I cannot hastily be of counsel » (Knox, ibid., II, p. 122).
La cité de Magdebourg acquise à Luther avait soutenu pendant un an le siège de Maurice de Saxe.
Aux termes de la capitulation, Charles Quint autorisait le statu quo et posait le principe du cujus regio, ejus religio.
Voir Knox, ibid., II, p. 132 : « Principes omnes, tam supremi quam inferiores, possunt et debent reformari vel deponi per eos, per quos eliguntur, confirmantur, vel admittuntur ad officium, quoties a fide prestita subditis per juramentum deficiunt. Quoniam relatio juramenti subditorum principum mutua est, et utriusque regno jure servanda et reformanda, juxta legem et conditionem juramenti ab utraque parte facti. »
Voir Luther I, 150 ss [An den christlichen Adel deutscher Nation (1520)] & IV, 64 ss [Von weltlicher Obrigkeit wie weit man ihr gehorsam schuldig sei]
William Tyndale, Doctrinal Treatises and Introductions, H. Walter (éd.), Cambridge, The Parker Society, 1848, p. 174-75, et p. 177-79.
Peter Lorimer, John Knox and the Church of England, London, 1875, p. 259.
« Wherefore such a wicked prince must godly men suffer, seeing they be private persons, and have no authoritie over him. Neither is it their part, seditiouslie to move warre against him » (Voir Pierre Martyr Vermigli, Of the Induring of Tyrannie by Godlie Men, cité dans R. M. Kingdon, The Political Thought of Peter Martyr Vermigli, Genève, Droz, 1980, p. 106-07). Les étudiants de Vermigli tirèrent de ses cours donnés à Zurich une compilation de Loci communes publiée en 1576, quatorze ans après sa mort, et qui virent 14 éditions entre 1576 et 1656, dont trois à Londres. Vermigli publia 56 traités et commentaires sur l'Ancien Testament. Voir l’ouvrage de R. M. Kingdon.
« To be short: Because powers be of God, tyrannie must be abidden […] Wherefore, seeing thou art certaine, that tyrants also doe reigne by the will of God, thou when thou art pressed with their yoke or injuries shalt thus reason with thy selfe: Unless that God would have me to suffer these thinges, either he would by his power have delivered me from this injurie after I was fallen thereinto, or else he would have turned away the same, least I should have runne into it. And thou being thus certified, thou wilt not attempt or indevour anie thing seditiouslie in the Commonweale » (Vermigli, in Kingdon, ibid., p. 108).
Voir Kingdon, ibid, p. 108.
Voir Jean, Calvin, Institution Chrétienne, J. Pannier (éd.), Paris, Belles Lettres, 1961, t. IV, p. 197- 240.
Voir Knox, op. cit., II, p. 117.
Voir Knox, ibid.., II, p. 118.
« - I find no more privilege granted unto kings […] by God, more than unto the people, to offend God’s majesty.
– I grant, said Lethington, but yet the people may not be judges unto their king to punish him, albeit he be an idolater.
– God, said the other, is the Universal Judge, as well unto the King as to the people; so what his word commands to be punished in the one, is not to be absolved in the other.
– We agree in that, said Lethington; but the people may not execute God’s judgment, but must leave it unto Himself, who will either punish it by death, by war, by imprisonment, or by some other plagues.
– I know the last part of your reason, said John Knox, to be true; but for the first, to wit, that the people, yea, or a part of the people may not execute God’s judgments against their King, being an offender, I am assured ye have no other warrant except your own imagination, and the opinion of such as more fear to offend princes than God » (Knox, ibid., II, p. 121).
« to resist a tyrant is not to resist God, nor yet his ordinance » (Knox, ibid., II, p. 130).
« But now, sall sum demand, What then? Sall we go and slay all Ydolateris? That wer the office, deir Brethrene, of everie Civill Magistrate within his Realme. But of yow is requyreit onlie to avoyd participatioun and company of thair abominationis » (Voir Knox, A Godly Letter, in John Knox, Works, David Laing (éd.), Edinburgh, Johnson and Hunter, 1846-1864, 6 vol. , vol. III, p. 194).
Knox interprète ici Romains 1: 32: « Because […] men knaweth the Justice of God, and doing the contrarie, ar worthie of death, not only thay that committis iniquitie, but also suche as consentis to the same » (Knox, ibid., III, p. 190).
Bullinger à Calvin, L 1934 du 26.3.1554, Thesaurus epistolicus, t. 6, in Œuvres complètes, op. cit., XV, p. 91, et Calvin à Bullinger, L 1947 du 29.4.54, ibid., XV, p. 125 et in Knox, Works, op. cit., III, p. 221-26.
Knox, ibid., III, p. 221-26.
Voir Knox, ibid., III, p. 223-26.
Voir Knox, A Comfortable Epistle to Christ’s Afflicted Church, in Knox, ibid., III, p. 244, p. 245- 247 et Knox, An Epistle to his Afflicted Brethren in England, in Knox, ibid., III, p. 234.
« With thys hatred [Il s’agit de la « haine parfaite » du Psaume 139 : 22] may we [hate] tyrantes, and earnestly may we praye for theyr destruction, bee thy Kinges or Quene, Princes or Prelates » (Knox, A Comfortable Epistle to Christ’s Afflicted Church, in Knox, ibid., III, p. 244-245).
Knox, Admonition, in Knox, ibid., III, p. 296.
« God, for his great mercies sake, stirre up some Phinees, Helias, or Jehu, that the bloude of abhominable idolaters maye pacifie Goddes wrath, that it consume not the whole multitude. Amen. » (Knox, Admonition, in Knox, ibid., III, p. 309).
Knox, Admonition, in Knox, ibid, III, p. 311.
« Their victory standeth not in resisting, but in suffering […] Our soverane Master pronounceth to his Discipillis, that in thair pacience suld thai possess their saullis. And the same foirsaw the Prophet Ysay, when that he paynteth furth all uther battell to be with violence, tumulte, and blud-scheding; but the victorie of Godis pepill to be in quyetnes, sylence, and hoip […] All thingis thai sustene at the commandement of Him who hath apoyntit theme to suffer, being most assuredlie persuadit, that then onlie thai triumphe, when all men judge thame oppressit; for in the cross of Chryst alwayis is includit a secreit and hid victorie ... » (Knox, The Copie of a Letter to the Ladye Mary Dowager, 1ère édition, in Knox, ibid. IV, p. 75).
« […] that you ought to hazard your own lives (be it against kings or emperors) for their deliverance. For only for that cause are ye called Princes of the people, and ye receive of your brethren honour, tribute, and homage at God’s commandment; not by reason of your birth and progeny (as the most part of men falsely do suppose), but by reason of your office and duty, which is to vindicate and deliver your subjects and brethren from all violence and oppression […] for your conscience shall one day be compelled to acknowledge that the reformation of religion, and of public enormities, doth appertain to more than the Clergy, or chief rulers called Kings » (Knox, History, op. cit., I, p. 135).
« […] that with all simplicitie and lawful obedience […] ye seik the favours of the Authoritie, that by it (yf possibill be) the cause in whilk ye labour may be promotit, or at the leist not persecuted; whilk thing, efter all humill requeist yf ye can not atteane, then, with oppin and solempn protestatioun of your obedience to be gevin to the Authoritie in all thingis not planelie repugnyng to God, ye lawfullie may attempt the extreamitie, whilk is, to provyd, whidder the Authoritie will consent or not, that Chrystis Evangell may be trewlie preachit, and his halie Sacramentis rychtlie ministerit unto yow... » (Knox, Lettre du 17.12.57, in Knox, Works, op. cit., IV, p. 285).
« Onlie they which to the death resist such wicked lawes and decrees are acceptable to God, and faithfull to their Prince » (Knox, Lettre à la Régente, 2ème edn, in Knox, ibid., IV, p. 441).
Knox, Lettre à la Régente, 2ème édition, in Knox, ibid., IV, p. 457.
« […] for now the commune song of men is, We must obey our Kinges, be they good or be they bad; for God hath so commaunded […] True it is, God hath commaunded Kinges to be obeyed, but like true it is, that in things which they commit against his glorie, or when cruelly without cause they rage against their brethren, the members of Christes body, he hath commaunded no obedience, but rather he hath approved, yea, and greatlie rewarded such as have opponed themselves to theyre ungodly commaundements » (Knox, The Appellation of Iohn Knox from the cruel and most injust sentence … with his supplication and exhortation to the nobilitie, estates and communaltie of the same realme, in Knox, ibid. IV, p. 496).
Knox, The Appellation of Iohn Knox from the cruel and most injust sentence … with his supplication and exhortation to the nobilitie, estates and communaltie of the same realme, in Knox, ibid. IV, p. 506-507.
« it doth no lesse appertaine to you, beloved Brethren, to be assured that your faith and religion be grounded and established upon the true and undoubted Worde of God, then to your Princes or Rulers […] to you it doth no lesse appertaine, then to your Kinge and Princes, to provide that Christ Jesus be truely preached amongst you » (Knox, To his Beloved Brethren the Commonaltie of Scotland, in Knox, ibid., IV, p. 527).
Knox, To his Beloved Brethren the Commonaltie of Scotland, in Works IV, p. 534.
« To speak this matter more playne, as your Princes and Rulers are criminal with your Byshoppes of all idolatrie committed […] so are you […] criminal and gyltie, with your Princes and Rulers, of the same crimes, becaus ye assist and maintaine your Princes in theyr blynde rage, and give no declaration that theyr tyrannie displeaseth you » (Knox, To his Beloved Brethren the Commonaltie of Scotland, in Knox, ibid. IV, p. 535).
Goodman (c.1518-c.1603) et Knox se rencontrèrent à Chester, d'où Goodman était originaire, sous le règne d'Edouard VI. Ils se retrouvèrent à Francfort-sur-le-Main en 1554, puis à Genève en 1555 comme pasteurs de l'église anglaise. En 1559 Elisabeth s'opposa à leur retour en Angleterre en raison de leurs écrits sur le gouvernement des femmes. Goodman rejoignit Knox en Écosse durant l'été 59 et devint pasteur à Ayr, puis à St. Andrews jusqu'en 1565, d'où il partit pour Drogheda. Réinstallé à Chester après avoir renié ses doctrines politiques devant une commission ecclésiastique (1572), mais resté suspect de non-conformité envers la liturgie anglicane, il finit sa vie en 1602 ou 1603. Sur la correspondance de Knox à Goodman, voir J.E.A. Dawson et L. K. J. Glassey, « Some Unpublished Letters from John Knox to Christopher Goodman », The Scottish Historical Review, vol. XXXIV, 2, N° 218, oct. 2005, p. 166-201.
« And thoghe it appeare at the firste sight a great disordre that the people shulde take unto them the punishment of transgression, yet, when the Magistrates and other officers cease to do their dutie, they are as it were, without officers, yea, worse then if they had none at all, and then God geveth the sworde in to the peoples hande, and be him self is become immedialty their head (Yf they will seeke the accomplishment of his Lawes) and hath promised to defend them and blesse them » (voir Christopher Goodman, How Superior Powers Ought to be Obeyed , Facsimile reprint, Amsterdam, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ltd, 1972, p. 185).
« And that it it be not done by the consent and ayed of the Superiours, it is lawfull for the people, yea it is their duetie to do it them selves, as well upon their owne rulers and Magistrat, as upon other of their brethren, having the worde of God for their warrant, to which all are subjecte, and by the same charged to cast forthe all evill from them, and to cut of every rotten membre, for feare of infecting the whole body, how deare or pretious so ever it be. If death be deserved, death: if other punishmentes, to see they be executed in all » (Goodman, ibid., p. 189-90).
« If not, you are discharged, and no obedience belongeth to them: because they are not obedient to God nor be his ministers to punishe the evell, and to defend the good » (Goodman, ibid., p. 190).
Goodman, ibid., p. 216.
Goodman, ibid., p. 216.
Knox, in Works, op. cit. IV, p. 539-540.Haut de page